Sanguines find social interactions with faces both familiar and unfamiliar invigorating. This is how they recharge, and time alone - while sometimes desirable - can bore them quickly. The more people they're surrounded by, the better they feel, and they're not picky about who they get to know. They enjoy having many, many friends. While sanguines enjoy being around other people, it's largely because they enjoy the attention of others and feel good about the fact that they are not lonely. They are talkers more than they are listeners. They may move away from friends that they consider to be boring or dull. They are bubbly, fun-loving, extroverted people-people who are always in the mood for a good time. They love wild nights out. They make friends quickly, and they'll cheerily talk to strangers. People of the melancholic temperament might perceive a room of twenty strangers as frightening or uncomfortable, while a sanguine might see them as opportunities to meet new friends. They are not picky, and will usually like more things than they dislike. They tend to enjoy things that are trendy, popular, and so on. They enjoy social situations, and believe that everyone else would too. They're likely to convince people to come along with things like 'come on, you'll enjoy it!' or 'you don't know what you're missing!' Being friends with a Sanguine is often as simple as knowing each other's face and name. They aren't particularly trustworthy... as they'll be too eager to spill secrets with others, and their general flightiness can make them unreliable as they're likely to get easily distracted by other things. They are talkative, and speak in a friendly, energetic, playful kind of way; they're often charismatic, and when interacting with them, you can feel like you've known them all your life. They are very emotional, and their emotions can be extreme but fleeting. They are the sorts who will be screaming "I HATE YOU I HATE YOU!!" one day, then mere hours later, they'll be profusely apologising about it, then expecting everything to all be water under the bridge after that. They are quick to 'forgive and forget' - and expect others to do the same - because they live in the moment rather than dwelling in the past. They tend to have open senses of humour (rather than dry or subtle humour), and laugh and smile often and clearly. They may tease others in a 'playful' way, expecting them not to 'take it so seriously'. They are very show-offy and have high self-esteem. They're prone to bragging, in a 'look how amazing I am!!' kind of way rather than 'I am better than you' (which is more choleric). They are extreme in their emotions, and may go through stages of melodramatic misery and self-loathing as well. They can be very easy-going, suggesting that more serious people 'mellow out' or 'take a chill pill'. Sanguines can be great motivators, as they'll enthusiastically encourage others towards action, and they see things positively, optimistically, and would convince others to see things that way too. They are naturally physical with others, very 'touchy-feely', openly expressing their affection through hugs and stroking and grabbing shoulders and things like that. They could not be said to be neat and tidy. They live in the moment, which can lead to poor planning or disorganisation, messiness.
The defining feature of a melancholic attitude is perfectionism. They are idealists who wish for things to be a certain way, and they get distressed when they are not. They hold themselves and others to unrealistically high standards, and get distressed when these standards are not met. This leads to them being self-deprecating - because they do not meet their own standards - and critical of others - because those others do not meet their standards. Their generally dour demeanour comes from their inner struggle between an imperfect world and a desire for perfection. Many melancholics wish to learn and to understand, to know the details of every little thing, because to be ignorant is to stray from perfection. They are not content to just accept things the way that they are. They are inquisitive and ask specific questions in order to come to a clearer understanding. They think and plan before they act; they are not the types who will resort to rash, impulsive behaviour, and will panic if they are unable to plan in advance. It's easier for them to reject and hate things than it is for them to love and embrace them. Their interests and tastes are picked carefully, and they give a lot of attention to each one, and hold them close to their hearts, rather than having many fleeting interests that change quickly and often. "Wow, that's a really nice painting you just made!" "I don't know, the eyes are probably too big..." (rather than "Thanks!") They tend to prefer things to be tidy, organised in some way or another. This doesn't necessarily mean 'neat' as such; often they have very idiosyncratic organisation methods. They are idealists, who imagine perfect fantasies and feel upset when things don't live up to these fantasies. They prefer to tackle the heart of the matter, which can lead to them avoiding 'beating around the bush'. Melancholics are the most introverted of the temperaments in that they crave time alone, and are most at ease in their own company. They can enjoy spending time with others, but this drains their energy, and they need alone time in order to recharge. Much of their introversion comes from their perfectionism. They are picky about the sorts of people that they associate with; people who meet their standards and share their outlook. People that don't will make them uncomfortable; they do not wish to talk to 'anyone and everyone'. Their self-deprecation also makes them think that they might not be very interesting anyway, that they aren't really worth spending time with, even if they know in the depths of their minds that they are very interesting indeed. Once they have someone to talk to in a quiet and relaxed environment, they can talk a lot and will enjoy sharing thoughts and ideas. They can be seen as selfish, because they prefer to be alone with their thoughts, to have their own things, rather than sharing time or possessions socially with others. They are usually very possessive about the things that they own and are reluctant to let others borrow or use them, because they treat their own things well, care about everything deeply, and will worry that others will not look after them with the same level of care. They could be described as 'intense', rather than 'easy-going'.
Phlegmatics do not act as if they are better than others. They are eager to please, and quick to give in to others rather than asserting their own desires as if they're the most important. They take the path of least resistance whenever possible. They so desperately wish for peace, for everyone to get along, and to avoid conflict at all costs. Conflict terrifies them. They do not start it (except perhaps in extreme circumstances), or provoke it, and try to defuse it when it comes up. When forced into an argument, they get very upset and distressed, seeking escape rather than victory. If confronted, they are likely to admit that they are in the wrong in order to prevent hostilities. They don't believe that they know best. They have no desire to be a 'winner'; they only wish for peace. They are well-behaved; rebelling against established rules would feel deeply uncomfortable to them. They're the sort who'd say, worriedly, 'should we really be doing this?' or 'we might get in trouble!'. They really, really do not wish to be a bother to others, and always put others first. This is due to a deep-rooted unease about asserting themselves rather than a lack of confidence, or a conscious desire to be a 'nice person'. They are quick to apologise for any mistakes that they may have made, and will sacrifice their own happiness to ensure that others are happy. They are empathetic, and acutely aware of the feelings of those that they are interacting with, as they do not wish to hurt these feelings. They have tremendous difficulty saying no, and will go along with things that they dislike to make others happy. They are extremely trustworthy; if they make a promise, it's very likely that they will keep it. They're terrified of doing things wrong. They will blame themselves if mistakes are made, even if it was someone else's fault, just to make others feel better and more at ease. They try and word things in a way that is not offensive to others. The will be more supportive than critical. Indecisive They'll defer to others to make choices, and will feel upset and pressured if they have to make a decision themselves; this comes from their inability to see themselves in a 'leader' role. They are natural followers, and work best when they are told what to do. Their language is generally full of uncertain phrases such as 'I think', 'maybe', 'perhaps', 'or something'. Compare "maybe you could do X, or something?" to "do X" or "you should do X". Rather than saying or doing the wrong thing, they'll say or do nothing at all. Obstacles that get in the way of their steady path will cause them to halt and fumble around, not sure what to do. They're more likely to travel around than through it; their path is easily changed by others.
Cholerics people are leaders and directors. They seek to be in control of situations, to be on top, to be the best. This doesn't necessarily mean that they are all driven to reach the top of the corporate ladder or anything, or that they all want to have leadership roles, but in day-to-day interactions with other people, they have a tendency towards one-upsmanship. They use imperative, commanding language, wording things as orders rather than requests. Compare "get me a drink" to "can I have a drink?". They probably use phrases like 'deal with it', 'get over yourself', 'stop being such a wimp', etc, or may start sentences with "look", or maybe "look, buddy" or "listen, pal" or things like that. They word things with confidence and certainty. Compare "X is this way" to "maybe X is this way, or something?". They are firm and forceful in their approach to problems. They believe in 'tough love', and try to 'help' others by challenging them to prove themselves, as they themselves would. They're more likely to tell someone who they are trying to 'help' that they're pathetic, expecting the person to say 'no, I'm not pathetic, I'll show you!', as indeed a choleric would in response to such a thing. If met by opposition, they react confrontationally to defend themselves. They are constantly trying to be 'dominant' in every situation, subconsciously, either by being louder and better than those around them, or more restrained and therefore superior to those who lose their cool. Most bullies are choleric, but few cholerics are bullies. Many will in fact stand up to those who bully others, rather than letting them get away with things. Their confidence and demanding natures make them natural leaders, though this doesn't mean that they would necessarily enjoy leadership positions; they're just more likely to take charge if necessary rather than fumbling around worrying. They will 'challenge' others aggressively in order to show their respect for the person's strength. They believe that it is important to 'prove oneself'. They have a tendency to argue for reasons that are different to the melancholic. They're more driven by a desire to prove themselves greater than whoever they're arguing with, to assert that they are right, rather than to reach some kind of truth or compromise. They can lie in order to maintain the dominant position. The argument is about them moreso than the issue; a battle of egos rather than a quest for truth. They say things like "if anyone tries to mess with me, I make them wish they'd never started on me in the first place" They love competition... but hate to lose. They are defiant of authority, challenging them as if to knock them off the top spot and assert their own dominance as the alpha of this pack, the leader of this tribe. They can be very condescending to those that they look down upon. They may take pleasure in the pain, misfortune, or humiliation of people they are not on good terms with. This is because it brings them pleasure to feel superior to others. "Haha! Look at that loser messing up! Hilarious!" (Compare this with the phlegmatic, who'd be more likely to feel distress when seeing someone being harmed, even if it was their worst enemy.) Words like 'hot-blooded', 'brash', 'domineering', 'overbearing', might be used to describe this temperament. They blame others for their own mistakes, often to the point of lying to save face. They feel that they can define and understand and advise others, but laugh at the thought that others could do the same to them. This is because analysing and defining another puts you in the superior position, while being defined would put them in the inferior position, which they resist.
Introvert and extrovert, basic personality types according to the theories of the 20th-century Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung. According to these theories, an introvert is a person whose interest is generally directed inward toward his own feelings and thoughts, in contrast to an extrovert, whose attention is directed toward other people and the outside world. The typical introvert is shy, contemplative, and reserved and tends to have difficulty adjusting to social situations. Excessive daydreaming and introspection, careful balancing of considerations before reaching decisions, and withdrawal under stress are also typical of the introverted personality. The extrovert, by contrast, is characterized by outgoingness, responsiveness to other persons, activity, aggressiveness, and the ability to make quick decisions. This typology is now regarded as overly simplistic because almost no one can be accurately described as wholly introvert or extrovert. Most persons fall somewhere between Jung’s two types—i.e., they are ambiverts, in whom introversive and extraversive tendencies exist in a rough balance and are manifested at different times in response to different situations. Introverts are more concerned with the inner world of the mind. They enjoy thinking, exploring their thoughts and feelings. They often avoid social situations because being around people drains their energy. This is true even if they have good social skills. After being with people for any length of time, such as at a party, they need time alone to "recharge." When introverts want to be alone, it is not, by itself, a sign of depression. It means that they either need to regain their energy from being around people or that they simply want the time to be with their own thoughts. Being with people, even people they like and are comfortable with, can prevent them from their desire to be quietly introspective. Extroverts tend to "fade" when alone and can easily become bored without other people around. When given the chance, an extrovert will talk with someone else rather than sit alone and think. In fact, extroverts tend to think as they speak, unlike introverts who are far more likely to think before they speak. Extroverts often think best when they are talking. Concepts just don't seem real to them unless they can talk about them; reflecting on them isn't enough. Extroverts enjoy social situations and even seek them out since they enjoy being around people. Their ability to make small talk makes them appear to be more socially adept than introverts (although introverts may have little difficulty talking to people they don't know if they can talk about concepts or issues).